Most electronic crimes are potentially-violent offenses due to the reason the defining characteristic of the online world is the ability to interact devoid of any physical contact. These electronic crimes can be further divided as follows;
1. Internet Frauds:
Internet frauds can be defined as “the use of the internet to commit frauds that include computers, the internet, money transactions, investments and credit cards, tax refunds to cause monetary or financial gain”.
a. Cyber frauds: cyber fraud involves offering falsehoods to obtain something of value or benefit. The victim voluntarily gives the money or property to the criminal but would not have done so. If the criminals hadn’t made any misrepresentation or false promise of some kind.
b. Tax refund fraud: The process of tax refund fraud goes like this: the cyber criminal first obtains the valid name and social security number, the cyber criminal then makes a withholding information claim, standard deductions and perhaps tax credits and completes a return that creates or generates a large refund. The cybercriminal files the return and then simply waits for either a cheque to be made or a direct transfer of funds to be made to a safe bank account.
c. Investment frauds: Investment frauds target individuals, the fraudsters use convincing arguments to make people part with their savings. The types of fraudsters usually want the individual to invest their money in a company or an opportunity which seems to be offering very high rates of return.
d. Electronic funds transfer frauds: Electronic funds transfer systems have dwelt and the chances of getting intercepted has also increased. Valid credit card numbers can be intercepted electronically and the digital information stored on the card can be counterfeited and used by the criminal. This crime also includes transferring a large amount of money or shares from one bank account to another bank account.
e. Credit Card Frauds: Credit cards are the most frequently used electronic payment instrument. Credit card fraud is the form of identity theft that involves an unauthorized taking of another’s credit card information for making purchases of huge amounts or just withdrawing funds from them.
2. Cyber Trespass:
These offenses assess resources that a computer or a network needs without any kind of authorization. The primary aim of trespassing is to enter the computer or the network and get access to the data information stored therein. The criminal does not need to damage or misuse the data contained in the computer or network.
3. Cyber Theft:
Cyber theft refers to the act of stealing of financial and/or personal information through the use of computers for its fraudulent or other illegal use. Many different types of cyber thefts are a theft of sensitive data. In simple words getting assessed to and stealing of sensitive data is referred to as theft of sensitive data. The sensitive data consists of unencrypted credit card information, personally identifiable information, trade secrets, source code of any software or application, all employee records and so on.
a. Theft of Intellectual Property: Intellectual property includes commercial copyrighted materials like music, movies and books. They are always at risk of being
b. Identity Theft: Identity theft occurs when a cyber criminal successfully steals a person’s personal identifiable information. The crime ends with the victims suffering from any financial loss or any kind of damage that can be done with the data. Identity theft can go undetected for a significant period of time.
c. Embezzlement: It involves misappropriating money or property for one’s own use that has been given or entrusted to them by someone else or some organization for unlawful appropriation. In this crime the criminal gains access to the valuables from outside the organization and transfers the funds and modifies documents giving him the title of the owner, the property that he never owned. Corporate or industrial espionage in this crime person inside or outside the company uses the network to steal the important data of the company. This important data includes trade secrets, financial data, confidential client lists, marketing strategies etc.
d. Plagiarism: It is the theft of someone’s else’s original writing with the intent of passing it off as someone’s own work.
e. DNS Cache Poisoning: It is a form of unauthorized interception in which the contents of the computer’s DNS cache is manipulated. So that all the network transmissions going to that specific domain name are redirected to the attackers’ servers.
4. Narcotics Trafficking:
Narcotics traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the Internet to sell illegal drugs and substances through the use of advanced internet technologies. Many of the drug traffickers arrange deals on the dark and deep web and deliver narcotics substance using courier websites. By use of the internet, virtual exchanges allow more intimidated individuals to more easily and comfortably purchase illegal drugs.
5. Corporate Account Takeover:
Corporate account takeover means the purchase of one corporate account by another. It begins by illicitly acquiring the login credentials by using a malicious program so that the victim uses the malicious program without noticing it. The attacker then gains access to the victim’s accounts information and transfers the funds to the account of the criminal.
Piracy can be found as the act of unauthorized copying of copyrighted software, music, movies, art, books and so on resulting in the loss of revenue and benefits to the legitimate owner of the copyright.
7. Electronic Money Laundering and Tax Evasion:
It involves using the Internet to hide the origins of money which was obtained through illegal means. Cyber criminals also find opportunities from Online Banking services where they can open accounts without meeting banking officials and due
8. Illegal interception of telecommunications:
Illegal interception means interception of personal and confidential information without the consent of the members of the conversation. Many times calls are tapped or intercepted to know the conversation. Existing law does not provide interception as legal.
9. Internet Relay Chat – IRC:
IRC servers have chat rooms in which people from anywhere in the world can come together and can chat with each other. Criminals use IRC rooms to meet co-conspirators. Hackers use them to discuss their exploits or share their techniques.
10. Cyber Extortion:
It is a crime involving an attack or threat of attack against an enterprise or a corporate company coupled with the demand for money to stop or avoid the attack. The method nowadays used by the cyber criminals is to use ransom where they encrypt the
victims data. The attacker then demands for the decryption key.
Phishing is a method in which the perpetrator sends out legitimate-looking emails in a temp together with personal and financial information from the recipient person. The emails direct the user to update their personal information such as passwords and credit card, pass codes, update social security and bank account numbers. The email that asked for such detail redirects the user to a fake site that looks legitimate and is set up to steal the user’s information.
12. Cyber Bullying:
Cyber bullying is bullying done through electronic technology. This electronic technology includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, tablets and social media sites, text messages, chat and various other websites. Examples of cyber bullying include text messages or emails or rumors sent through emails or posted on social networking sites or embarrassing pictures, videos or uploading offensive data on web sites. Cyber bullying is often committed by students.
13. Destructive Crimes:
Destructive internet crimes are those which include network services being disrupted or data is damaged or destroyed rather than stolen or misused. Each of these crimes deprives the authorized users of the data and our network the use. Some of the descriptive computer crimes are;
a. Cyber vandalism: Cyber vandalism can be a random act just for fun by board hackers with a malicious streak or it might be a form of computer Zagat 8 for profit which includes raising all the files of business competitors or erasing someone’s personal identifiable data.
b. Viruses and other malicious codes: They comprise the huge problem – all in it connected computers. A computer virus is a program that causes unwanted and often the structure results when it is run, viruses affect the program or applications smooth functioning causing it to malfunction or stop working.
c. Worm: A worm is a virus that replicates itself; it often spreads after replication, affecting every program in its way.
d. Trojans: Trojans act as a way to get a virus or worm into the network or computer see.
14. Internet Gambling:
Internet gambling has flourished with online customers able to place bets and virtual casinos using credit cards. It is also known as online gambling. In simple terms gambling using the Internet. The different types of internet gambling are Poker, Casinos, Sports betting, Bingo, Lotteries, Horse-racing betting, Mobile gambling and Advanced deposit of a grain.
15. Sales of Drugs through Internet:
Buying and selling prescription drugs off the internet results in criminal charges of illegal drug distribution or conspiracy to manufacture illegal drugs. Both the trafficking of illegal drugs and the sale of prescription drugs by online pharmacists are growing problems with E-Cyber contraband. Cyber contraband refers to data that is illegal to possess or transfer; cyber contraband simply refers to transferring illegal items through the internet that is banned in some places.
16. IP Spoofing:
IP spoofing involves changing the packet headers of a message to indicate that it came from an IP address other than the true source. The sending computer impersonates another machine and fools the recipient into accepting the fake messages. It can be used along with other attacks like ping of death teardrop and other attacks. Any service that uses IP address authentication is suspected to be IP spoofing.
a. ARP spoofing: ARP spoofing, also called ARP poisoning is a method of sending forged replies which result in incorrect entries in the cache. This results in subsequent messages sent to the wrong computer. The address resolution protocol maintains the ARP cache. This is a table that maps IP addresses to media access control that is the Mac or physical address of computers on the network. The MAC address is used at the physical level to locate the destination computer to which the message should be delivered.
b. H DNS spoofing: The DNS is responsible for managing the resolution of domain names into an equivalent IP address. Any successful replacement of a valid address with an alternate address causes people attempting to assess the domain name to visit the wrong website. This gives attackers a chance to create their own website that masquerades as a legitimate site and to attempt to steal all kinds of information by getting between the user and the real site.
17. DOS Attacks: DOS Attack known as denial of service attack is one of the most popular choices of hackers to disrupt a network operation. This disruption can cause the network to either slow down or crash the entire network. The purpose of the DOS attack is to make a network accessible by generating the type or amount of network traffic that crashes the server, overwhelms the routers or otherwise prevents the net devices from functioning properly. The other type of DOS attack also known as DDoS attacks which use intermediary computers called as agents on which programs known as zombies are installed secretly without the consent of the person to whom it belongs. Then the hacker activates the zombie programs remotely causing the intermediary computers to simultaneously launch the attack; it appears that the attack has originated from the zombie and hence the hacker remains safe.
18. Advance Fee Scam: You must have heard about the Advance Fee Scam, also called Nigerian fraud. It is a crime in which you receive mail that a billionaire died leaving behind property worth corrosive rupees and with no inheritors to claim and share of the property will be given to you. So if you cooperate with some declaration and pay some advance fees towards processing, you can get this money. This fraud is one of the most infamous frauds reported in Pakistan. It was Nigerian for 1/9 crime which emanated from a Nigerian punishable offense as per criminal laws. So just think about those who do not know about cyber crimes and the fact that they will get a property share of such a big billionaire so why not give them the processing fees of one thousand or two thousand dollars and this is where things go wrong. So you should never ever trust an email that asks you to give your financial details in any form.